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Results

Demographics

In total, surveys were collected from 30 respondents, all mothers with infants < 1 year of age. The participants' ages ranged from 18 to 37 years, with ages 18-24 being the most highly represented group. The median age was 25 with a standard deviation of 5 years. Three participants did not mark their ethnicity in the demographics section and were grouped into the "Other" category. Please refer to Appendix A, Table 1 for participant demographics.

The Resilience Scale

Scores on the RS-14 can range from 14 to 98 points, with higher scores indicating a higher level of resilience. In this research study, participants scored on the high end with a mean score of 85.6 and a standard of deviation of 10.8 points.

Physical Contact Assessment

T1 scores range from 10 to 40, with higher scores indicating a more positive attitude toward touch. There were 10 questions with answers ranging from "I strongly disagree" for 1 point to "I strongly agree" for 4 points. On T1, the mean score was 29.2, with a standard deviation of 4.7 points

T2 scores ranged from 6 to 24, with a higher score indicating more positive feelings about the touch the respondent received as a child. T2 encompasses 8 questions. However, the two qualitative questions in this section were not included in the scoring process. The answers to the remaining six questions ranged from "not at all," "almost never," or "very disappointed or angry" for 1 point to "a lot," "almost always," or "very content and satisfied" for 4 points. On T2, the mean score was 20.7, with a standard deviation of 3.4 points.

Mother-Infant Touch Survey

The mean score on the MITS was 53.1, with a SD of 4.9. This was the first time this survey was used in a study. A Cronbach's alpha was calculated at 0.421. The Cronbach Alpha score is a metric used to assess the internal reliability of a survey method, which can in turn be used as evidence for or against the fact that all the questions in a survey are monitoring the same underlying construct. If all the questions are measuring the same construct and have the same range (i.e. 1-5), it makes sense to treat them as individual pieces of evidence pointing to one overriding score (UCLA, 2013). Put simply, the Cronbach Alpha is a way to determine whether a given survey or test can be compressed into a summative score.

The alpha score ranges from 0 to 1, with scores below 0.5 considered to be evidence of a lack of reliability. It was noted during analysis that the length of crying before intervention questions (#14-17) posed a difficulty because 4 out of 17 total questions were based on one behavior, perhaps unduly affecting a summative score. With these questions removed from the Cronbach Analysis, alpha drops to 0.323. This is expected, as Cronbach's Alpha is unduly affected by the number of factors (questions) in a survey (UCLA, 2013).

Hypothesis Testing

Little correlation was found among scores on the RS-14 and T1, T2, or MITS. The significance of infant's age ( 24 weeks) and employment status (employed vs. unemployed) on scores on the RS-14 were also statistically insignificant. However, we cannot reject the null hypothesis or determine that the correlation between any of these variables is zero. (Refer to Appendix A, Table 2.)

Demographics and Survey Results

Student T tests were also performed comparing different groupings of participants based on demographic characteristics to examine for differences on resiliency results among groups. There were 16 mothers in the study aged 25 years or younger and 14 mothers over the age of 25. The median age in the over 25 group was 30 years with a standard of deviation of 3.5 years. The median age in the under 25 group was 22 with a standard of deviation of 2.3 years (Appendix A, Table 3-1). Although R-squared was low, a linear trend was detected between scores on T1 and the RS-14 for participants' ages 25 years or less (Appendix B, Figure 1). The R-squared was low, indicating statistically that the linear fit was not much better than guessing the mean. (Refer to Appendix A, Table 3-2.)

Sixteen mothers reported Hispanic ethnicity and fourteen mothers belonged to non-Hispanic ethnic groups. The mean resiliency score among Hispanic mothers was 88.3, whereas the mean among the non-Hispanic mothers was 82.6. A Wilcox-Mann-Whitney test between the two populations yielded a p-value of .03, which indicates that the central location of the two distributions is different (Refer to Appendix A, Table 5-2 and 5-3 as well as Appendix B, Figures 2-1 and 2-2.)

In addition, participants were grouped according to: Infant age: 24 weeks; 1st baby (Para = 1) vs. more than 1 baby (Para > 1); vaginal vs. cesarean; length of labor: 12 hours; breast vs. bottle vs. both; NICU vs. no NICU; EDD: (within 1 wk of EDD and 2-4 wks before EDD) vs. (5-8 wks before EDD and >8 wks before EDD); and infant bath: short (<5 or 5-10 min.) vs. longer (11-15 or >15 min.). None of these comparisons demonstrated statistically significant differences (Appendix A, Table 4-1, 4-2, and 4-3).

Discussion >>