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Due to the limited number of participants per cross-cultural and various ethnic groups in this sample, we analyzed the relationship between the most highly represented group (Hispanics) and the remaining individuals. As discussed previously, findings suggest that Hispanic mothers are more resilient than non-Hispanic mothers. However, the fact that all ethnic populations were not equally represented should be considered when interpreting results.

Although results regarding maternal resiliency and perception of touch (T1 and T2) or reported touch with infant (MITS) came back non-correlational, it is difficult to say with certainty that no relationships exist among these variables. This is attributed to the fact that the MITS has never been utilized in any other study. This survey tool would benefit from further testing to determine its internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Questions in the MITS were designed to generate unbiased responses. However, mothers who self-report details about interactions with their infants may be biased in their responses. Low Cronbach's alpha could also be expected because of the rarity of a behavior being identified. For example, it is less likely that a respondent will self-report "never picking up the baby when he or she cries" because of social pressures to respond more positively.

In addition, recruitment of participants from one location may have caused results to be representative of individuals in the surrounding area alone, rather than individuals of the study population as a whole. Since the majority was of Hispanic ethnicity, we recognize that another barrier may include English as a second language. Although participants were required to be able to read English, it is important to understand that question interpretation may have been influenced by language barriers when considering the results. This inclusion criterion also excluded participants with lower education and literacy levels from this study, possibly altering the results

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