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Psychological stress results from negative life events. Stress and inadequate coping have been found to negatively interact with one another in a vicious cycle (Folkman & Lazarus, 1984). The inability to cope causes increased stress while stress increases the negativity of life events, making it even harder to cope resiliently (Karademas, Karamvakalis, & Zarogiannos, 2009). Unfortunately, many believe that our ability to cope is set at an early age, making it very difficult to break the cycle later in life (Gunnar & Quevedo, 2007). Current literature on this topic is more focused on the effects of bonding on the infant. Further research is needed to discover whether or not resiliency is increased in mothers by the same positive touch and interactions that enhance development, attachment, and resiliency in the infant.

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