US tab

Etiology of Community Acquired Clostridium
Difficile-Associated Disease

By: Shannan Sherman and Dr. Pamela Ark | Mentor: Dr. Pamela Ark


Association of Community Health Nursing Educators. (2003). Quad Council PHN Competencies. Quad Council of Public Health Nursing Organizations.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004). An introduction to epidemiology. Retrieved March 1, 2010 from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). Severe Clostridium difficile-associated disease in populations previously at low risk -- four states, 2005. MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). General information about Clostridium difficile infections. Retrieved July 9, 2009, from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008). Surveillance for community-associated Clostridium difficile -- Connecticut, 2006. MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). What is pulsenet? Retrieved March 1, 2009, from

Cohen, S., Tang, Y., Muenzer, J., Gumerlock, P., and Silva, J., (1997). Isolation of various genotypes of Clostridium difficile from patients and the environment in an oncology ward. Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication Of The Infectious Diseases Society Of America, 24, 889-893.

Dial, S., Delaney, J., Barkun, A., & Suissa, S. (2005). Use of gastric-acid suppressive agents and risks of community-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Journal of the American Medical Association, 294, 2989-995.

Hirschhorn, L., Trnka, Y., Onderdonk, A., Lee, M., & Platt, R. (1994). Epidemiology of community-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Journal Of Infectious Diseases, 169(1), 127-33.

Jhung, M., Thompson, A., Killgore, G., Zukowski, W., Songer, G., Warny, M., et al. (2008). Toxinotype V Clostridium difficile in humans and food animals. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14, 1039-1045.

Karlström, O., Fryklund, B., Tullus, K., & Burman, L. (1998). A prospective nationwide study of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in Sweden. The Swedish C. difficile Study Group. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 141-45.

Kuijper, E., & Van Dissel, J. (2008). Spectrum of Clostridium difficile infections outside health care facilities. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 179, 747-48.

Levy, D., Stergachis, A., McFarland, L., Van Vorst, K., Graham, D., Johnson, E., et. al. (2000). Antibiotics and Clostridium difficile diarrhea in the ambulatory care setting. Clinical Therapeutics, 22, 91-102.

McFarland, L., Clarridge, J., Beneda, H., & Raugi, G. (2007). Fluoroquinolone use and risk factors for Clostridium difficile-associated disease within a Veterans Administration health care system. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 45, 1141-51.

McFee, R., & Abdelsayed, G. (2009). Clostridium difficile. Disease-A-Month: DM, 55, 439-70.

Noren, T., Akerlund, T., Back, E., Sjoberg, L., Persson, I., Alriksson, I., et al. (2004). Molecular epidemiology of hospital-associated and community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection in a Swedish county. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 42, 3635-43.

Oriola, S. (2006). C. difficile: A menace in hospitals and homes alike. Nursing, 36(8), 14-15.

Riley, T., Wymer, V., Bamford, V., & Bowman, R. (1986). Clostridium difficile in general practice and community health. Journal of Hygiene, 96(1), 13-17.

Rupnik, M., Wilcox, M., & Gerding, D. (2009). Clostridium difficile infection: New developments in epidemiology and pathogenesis. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 7, 526-36.

Simor, A., Yake, S., & Tsimidis, K. (1993). Infection due to Clostridium difficile among elderly residents of a long-term-care facility. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 17, 672-78.

Wilcox, M., Mooney, L., Bendall, R., Settle, C., & Fawley, W. (2008). A case-control study of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 62, 388-96