University of Central Florida Undergraduate Research Journal - Multiple Complications from a Finger Fracture in a Basketball Player
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Results

Groups were compared using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for (a) child self-reported loneliness and anxiety, and (b) parental report of internalizing and externalizing behaviors in their children (i.e., CBCL) and anxiety (i.e., SPAI-C PV) (see Table 2). Furthermore, relationships of variables were assessed using a Pearson Correlation between (a) parental score of social isolation in their children with child self-reported social withdrawal/loneliness (i.e., LS), and (b) child self-report of loneliness with child self-report of anxiety.

Table 2. Analysis of Variance


Loneliness

Results revealed that children with AD, children with SP, and children with TD differ on the factor of selfreported loneliness (F (2,50) = 18.83, p <.05) (see Figure 2). Scheffe post hoc analyses indicated that the mean of TD children (M = 20.68, SD = 4.45) was significantly lower than for children with AD (M = 43.00, SD = 10.67) or SP (M = 35.55, SD = 10.67), which did not differ from each other.

Figure 2  Lonlines & Figure 3 Anxiety

Anxiety

Scheffe post hoc analyses indicated significant differences in mean scores on self-report ratings of anxiety, with the TD group (M = 6.13, SD = 6.57) significantly lower than children with AD (M = 16.11, SD = 10.72) and SP (M = 23.30, SD = 7.42). Children with AD and children with SP did not significantly differ from each other (F (2, 50) = 17.14, p <.05). Parental ratings of social anxiety in their children revealed a difference between groups as well (F(2, 50) = 35, p <.05). Scheffe post hoc analyses for the SPAI-C PV revealed that the three groups differed significantly from each other with the largest difference between children with SP (M = 32.68, SD = 10.17) and TD children (M =5.01, SD = 5.66). The mean of the AD group (M = 22.27, SD = 11.48) fell between the other two groups and was significantly different from both of the others (Figure 3).

Figure 3


Behavioral Characteristics

Parental reports of behaviors of their children revealed that the three groups differ on the degree of internalizing behaviors (F (2, 50) = 35.19, p <.05) (see Figure 4). Scheffe post hoc analyses indicated that the mean of internalizing behaviors in TD children (M = 44.56, SD = 8.27) was significantly lower than for children with AD (M = 66.05, SD = 10.52) and children with SP (M = 67.22, SD = 7.07). Internalizing behaviors in children with AD and children with SP did not significantly differ from each other. Children's level of externalizing behavior also differed (F (2, 50) = 13.19, p <.05) (see Figure 5). Scheffe post hoc analyses indicated that externalizing behavior of children with AD (M = 61.42, SD = 12.69) was significantly higher than externalizing behavior of children with SP (M = 47, SD = 8.87) and TD children (M = 46.43, SD = 7.05). Externalizing behaviors of children with SP and TD children did not significantly differ from each other.

Figure 4 Internalizing Behaviors and Figure 5 Externalizing Behaviors

Social Withdrawal

A Pearson correlation between the withdrawn/depressed subscale of the CBCL internalizing scale and the LS (i.e., the relationship between child self-reported social withdrawal and parental report of social withdrawal in their children) was significant (r = .502, p <.01) and positive (see Table 3). Children whose parents reported them to be more withdrawn and depressed were more likely to report higher levels of loneliness.

Table 3: Correlation Matrix for Social Withdrawal/Isolation

Loneliness and Anxiety

Lastly, a Pearson correlation (see Table 4) was run to assess the relationship between child self-report of loneliness and anxiety. The correlation was significant (r = .408, p <.01) and positive. Children who reported more anxiety also described themselves as lonelier.

Table 4: Correlation Matrix for Loneliness and Anxiety

Discussion >>