University of Central Florida Undergraduate Research Journal - Daisy Miller: A Study of Patriarchal Perception
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Results

Results have been organized into three tables describing the different actions, types of movement, and types of maintenance observed by the A. hyacinthinus pair. Percentages and averages were calculated for actions and types of maintenance relevant to reproductive behaviors: the destruction of branches and bark for nesting, allopreening, and specialized vocalization.

Table 1. Types of actions observed of the A. hyacinthinus pair

Table 1 describes the different actions observed by the A. hyacinthinus pair. “Destruction” was calculated to be 27.24% of all the actions performed by the A. hyacinthinus pair. When zookeepers added palm leaves to the enclosure in Week 3, the pair’s destructive activity increased to 30%, compared to the average of 23.5% throughout the other weeks. The pair picked at, maneuvered, and stripped the leaves apart.  Zack specifically was observed stripping bark from the posts in the enclosure as well. The pair were not observed collecting the branches or bark into a specific area of the enclosure, meaning that the pair was not nesting. The pair mainly used the branches and bark to clean or sharpen their beaks. “Vocalization” was calculated to be 9.15% of all the actions performed. Vocalization did not last more than 3 minutes at a time, and the pair was not observed to be vocal during allopreening. The pair was also observed to be vocal when zookeepers entered the vicinity of the enclosure, when the pair acknowledged an (unknown) threat, or when other macaws began vocalizing as well.

Table 2. Types of maintenance observed of the A. hyacinthinus pair

Table 2 describes the different forms of maintenance performed by the A. hyacinthinus pair. Of the total maintenance activities observed, the A. hyacinthinus spent an average of 59.6% of the time “Self-Preening.” The pair performed “Mutual Preening” an average of 36.3% of the total maintenance time. “Self-preening” sessions and “Destruction” sessions both include cleaning and/or sharpening of beaks, and so calculations for “Cleaning/Sharpening Beak” cannot be accurately analyzed.

Table 3. Types of movement observed of the A. hyacinthinus pair

Table 3 describes the different types of movement observed by the A. hyacinthinus pair. The pair was always observed to be within a few feet from each other. When the pair was perched on opposite sides of the enclosure, one individual would move towards the other within 5 minutes. Additionally, Zack was occasionally observed walking in a pattern, visiting the same posts for a couple of seconds in Week 4, leading us to assume he was making “rounds” and performing vigilance activity. Percentages and averages were not calculated for any of these actions because the actions observed are not considered significant to mating or copulating behaviors.

Figure 4 (left). Averages of activities observed
Figure 5 (right). Averages comparing preening sessions

Figure 4 above demonstrates the average time spent on activities observed and recorded during observation sessions. Tallies were recorded per observation entry throughout the ten weeks and then averaged. The category “Self-Preening” includes self-preening sessions performed by either Zack or Stitch. “Perched Still” describes moments when Zack or Stitch or both were perched on a branch, surveying their environment or resting. The “Other Actions” category includes entries of Stitch biting her leg band and either macaw flipping around the branches, dancing, bouncing, stretching, climbing, and walking. As previously stated, averages for “Cleaning/Sharpening of Beak” cannot be accurately analyzed since it is observed to occur in preening sessions (both self and mutual) and in destructive behaviors. Figure 4 illustrates that Zack and Stitch spent most of their time (35%) participating in “Other Actions.”while “Vocalization” was recorded to occur 3% of the time for the Hyacinth pair, though no vocalizations were recorded during any allopreening sessions.

Additionally, “Destruction,” at 11% of observed behavior, did not indicate nesting behaviors. The A. hyacinthinus pair simply broke or gnawed at branches and posts to sharpen or clean their beaks or as mental stimulation. Figure 5 compares the averages between Zack’s and Stitch’s individual self-preening sessions and their mutual (allo) preening sessions. Figures 4 and 5 reveal that Zack and Stitch participated in “Self-Preening” and “Mutual Preening” sessions about an equal amount of time.

Discussion >>