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Method

To better understand the reasons for misogynistic attitudes, several surveys were given to participants in undergraduate psychology courses. The purpose of the present research is to identify a pattern of responses on a number of personality and attitude dimensions that allowed us to define sexism empirically. Participants' responses to views on spirituality/religiousness, the Big Five personality traits, political orientation, moral foundations theory, and benevolent and hostile sexism are studied. These constructs may possibly identify patterns associated with misogynistic attitudes. The general objective of the present research is to examine the different characteristics that may contribute to sexism, and to identify correlates. The variables specifically studied were religiousness/spirituality, altruism, compassion, the Big Five personality traits of agreeableness and openness, and what is known in psychology as the moral foundations theory.

Materials

Demographics Survey. The survey asked for basic demographic information, such as age, gender, ethnicity (e.g. White, Hispanic/Latino, Black/African American, Native American/American Indian, Asian/ Pacific Islander, or other) marital status, and religious preference (e.g. Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, Hindu, Agnostic, Atheist, or other). The answer choices for ethnicity reflect the ethnic classifications that the University of Central Florida uses for institutional data purposes.

Agreeableness Survey. A 10-item scale that surveyed the agreeableness factor of the Big Five personality traits was used. All items were answered on a five-point scale (1 - strongly disagree; 2 - disagree; 3 - neutral; 4 - agree; 5 - strongly agree). An example of an item on the test is, "[I] sympathize with others' feelings." The Cronbach's alpha of this subscale is .82 ("International Personality Item Pool", n.d.).

Altruism Survey. A 10-item scale that surveys the altruism facet of the NEO Personality Inventory Revised was used ("Altruism", n.d.). All items were answered on a five-point scale (1 - strongly disagree; 2 - disagree; 3 - neutral; 4 - agree; 5 - strongly agree). An example of an item on the survey is, "[I] love to help others." The Cronbach's alpha of this scale is .77 ("Altruism", n.d.).

Benevolent Sexism Survey. Glick and Fiske's (2001) 11-item scale was used to measure benevolent sexism. Items were answered on a five-point scale ("strongly disagree" to "strongly agree"; α=.92). An example of an item on the survey is "Women should be cherished and protected by men."

Hostile Sexism Scale. Glick and Fiske's (2001) 11-item scale surveys the dominative and threatening aspects of sexism was used, with items answered on a five-point scale ("strongly disagree" to "strongly agree"; α=.92). An example of an item on the survey is "Women seek power by gaining control over men." (Glick & Fiske, 2001).

Moral Foundations Subscales. This instrument is a 32item scale that surveys the social psychological theory of moral reasoning, developed by Haidt and colleagues. This survey was split into two parts. Part 1 of the survey states: "When you decide whether something is right or wrong, to what extent are the following considerations relevant to your thinking?". These items were answered on a six-point scale ("not at all relevant" to "extremely relevant"). An example item is "Whether or not someone suffered emotionally" (Graham, 2008).

Part 2 of the survey states: "Please read the following sentences and indicate your agreement or disagreement." These items were answered on a five-point scale ("strongly disagree" to "strongly agree"). An example of an item on the survey is "Respect for authority is something all children need to learn" (Graham, 2008). The subscales within this survey are care/harm, fairness, ingroup, authority, and purity.

Religiousness/Spirituality Survey. This instrument is a 9-item scale that surveys the degree of possible spiritual conviction ("Spirituality/Religousness", n.d.). All items were answered on a five-point scale ("strongly disagree" to "strongly agree). An example of an item on the survey is "[I] keep my faith even during hard times." The Cronbach's alpha of this scale is .91 ("Spirituality/ Religiousness", n.d.).

Compassion Survey. This instrument is 10-item scale that assesses compassion, and items were answered on a five-point scale (1 - strongly disagree; 2 - disagree; 3 - neutral; 4 - agree; 5 - strongly agree) ("Compassion", n.d.). An example of an item on the survey is, "[I] take an interest in other people's lives." The Cronbach's alpha of this scale is .84 ("Compassion", n.d.).

Procedure

Participants were informed that they were going to take part in an online research study regarding Big Five personality traits. Participants were able to complete the study from any computer with internet access during the time the study was available. The participants were first instructed of the general purpose and procedure of the study and then they were instructed to indicate consent before the experiment begins. The survey was delivered through Qualtrics, and the survey began with the demographics survey, followed by the compassion survey, altruism survey, agreeableness survey, moral foundations theory survey, spirituality/religiousness survey, hostile sexism survey, and finally the benevolent sexism survey. As a manipulation check, participants were instructed to select certain answers in order to ensure data quality (e.g., "Select 'agree' to this item." The students were granted credit for completing the study. Following the completion of the study, the participants were redirected to a page that debriefed them in the deception procedures used in the study.

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