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Results

General Behavior

Overall, the bears did not differ much in their general behavior. Oddly, the male bear spent more time swimming than the female bear did (P=0.0183). Differences observed in the amount of pacing were nearly significant (P=0.0519), with the male bear pacing an average of eleven percent less than the female bear. The male bear spent an average of eight percent more time resting/sleeping than the female bear, with nearly significant differences (P=0.0819). The average amount of time each bear spent doing an activity each day is recorded in Table 2.

Table 2 Shows the weighted average ± the weighted standard deviation for all behaviors for both bears.

Guest Impact on Behavior

Pacing was the primary focus of this study. As mentioned in Section 3.1, the bears performed most behaviors at similar percentages of their day, excepting swimming, resting/sleeping and pacing. The difference in pacing was nearly significant (P=0.0519). It had been expected that the female bear was pacing much more than the male bear. As shown in Figure 2A, the female bear spent an average of 61.5% (± 14.2% SD) of her day pacing, and the male spent an average of 50% (± 11.5% SD) of his day pacing. When excluding the days of separation, the difference in the amount of pacing the two bears performed was significant (P=0.00627). The female bear is shown to pace more, at an average of 63.2% (± 15.9% SD) of her day, when compared to the male bear, at an average of 48.4% (± 12.3% SD) of his day.

Guest presence was recorded and the location where the bears were pacing was noted, which revealed when the bears were pacing in front of guests. The female bear spent an average of 6.2% (± 1.4% SD) of her pacing in front of guests. The amount of pacing in front of guests the female bear performed was significantly less (P=0.0052) than the pacing performed in front of guests by the male bear, which averaged 43.2% (± 1.0% SD), shown below in Figure 2B. Excluding the days where the two bears were separated, the female bear spent an average of 4.8% (±1.2% SD) of her pacing in front of guests, while the male bear spent an average of 43.5% (± 11% SD), significantly more (P=0.0022).

Figure 2.A Shows the average amount of pacing as a percent of daily activity for both the male and female bear. On the right side of the figure is the average percent of the day spent pacing when excluding separation days.

Figure 2.B Show the average percent of pacing that occurs specifically in front of guests for both the female and male bears. On the right side of the figure, the average percent of pacing when excluding separation days is shown.

A linear regression was made to analyze any correlation between the number of guests that visited the viewing area for the day and the amount of pacing the bears were observed performing. Figure 3 displays the linear regression, but there was little to no correlation between the amount of pacing done and the number of guests that visited the exhibit area for the day for either bear. A second linear regression was made, showing the correlation between the amount of pacing in front of guests and the number of guests that visited the viewing area. A very weak positive correlation was shown for the male bear (R2=0.231), and no correlation was found for the female bear (R2=0.004), seen in Figure 4.

Figure 3. Shows the linear regression of pacing and the number of guests.

Figure 4. Shows the linear regression of pacing in front of guests and the number of guests that visited the viewing area for the day. A weak trend can be seen in the pacing done by the male bear (Red).

Zookeeper Impacts

The female bear's behavior was compared when the zookeeper was present and when the zookeeper was not present. Zookeeper presence impacted the amount of pacing the female bear did. The average daily percent of pacing without the zookeeper present was 70.7% (± 18.4% SD) verses a 37.4% (± 9.73% SD) with the zookeeper present. This difference was significant (P=0.008). Foraging was also significantly (P=0.003) impacted by zookeeper presence. On average, the female bear foraged for 4.87% (± 1.27% SD) of her time when the zookeeper was not present. With the zookeepers present, she foraged for an average of 16.3% (± 4.25% SD) of her time.

Similarly, the male bear showed significant differences in the amount of pacing (P=0.0196) and foraging (P=0.0015) done depending on zookeeper presence. In addition, the male bear showed a significant difference in the amount of resting/sleeping done based on zookeeper presence (P=0.0145). For the male bear, an average of 14.8% (± 3.81% SD) of the time the zookeepers were present was spent foraging, while an average of 5.49% (± 1.42% SD) of the time without zookeepers was spent foraging. An average of 59.82% (± 15.44% SD) of the male bear's time was spent pacing when the zookeepers were not present. With the zookeepers present, the male bear spent an average of 25.33% (± 6.58% SD) of his time pacing. Only the male bear showed a significant difference in resting/ sleeping when the zookeepers were present compared to when they were not. The male bear spent less time resting/ sleeping, on average, when the zookeepers were not present (20.55% (± 5.30% SD)) then when the zookeepers were present (48.47% (± 12.53% SD)).

Table 3. Shows the weighted average ± the weighted standard deviation for all of the behavioral categories of both the female and male bear when the zookeepers were present compared to when they were not present.

Discussion>>